Theorists Discuss

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

Wlodkowski and Ginsberg: 4 Motivational Conditions of CRT

  1. Establishing conclusion
  2. Enhancing positive attitude
  3. Enhancing meaning
  4. Engendering competence

Francesina Jackson: 7 Steps to Build Culturally Responsive Teaching

  1. Building trust
  2. Becoming culturally literate
  3. Building different methodical approaches
  4. Using effective questioning techniques
  5. Providing effective feedback
  6. Analyzing instructional materials
  7. Establishing positive home-school relationships

Novik: Commitments and Competencies crucial for student learning

  1. High expectations for all students
  2. A commitment to learn from and about students
  3. Building on the strengths to experiences students bring to school
  4. Giving wider choices and more power to teachers
  5. Developing schools as a caring community

Sandhu: 3 Steps to Culturally Responsive Teaching

  1. Awareness
  2. Acceptance
  3. Action

Hudson, Hergin and Chryst: Four Key Components

  1. Building cultural knowledge base
  2. A reciprocal sociocultural model
  3. Practicing models of Culturally Responsive Teaching
  4. Cross-cultural field experiences

Hemmings: Culturally Responsive Teaching

  1. Showed sensitivity to students’ life experiences
  2. Aligned curriculum with home cultures of students
  3. Organized learning activities in conjunction with student’s social interactional styles
  4. Culturally responsive teachers, “listened to students and took careful note of their lifestyles, social identities and especially their expectations for teachers” (105).


  1. Cultural Responsiveness Reflections and Questionnaires